Domains for testing or upscaling technology options

What is a domain?

A domain is an area where a single recommendation has broad application due to similarities in both socio-economic and environmental conditions.

Why is it important to identify domains?

To make sure recommendations are suitable for in terms of environmental and socio-economic conditions.

How are domains defined?

  • Participatory field appraisal using secondary data and maps
  • Involve farmer leaders; extension workers, researchers; and government administrators
  • Divide the region into domains taking into account the major factors that affect farming such as:


Example/why important

Availability to water Irrigated vs Rainfed - Access to reliable water supply
Soil type or soil problems Fertile areas vs areas with problems (e.g., Fe Toxicity, ZN deficiency)
Topography/slope position Hillsides, Valley bottoms, Waterlogged areas
Income groups Resources limitations may limit adoption
Labor availability Labor shortages during critical periods (e.g., crop establishment, weeding or harvest) may limit options?
Farm size e.g., Small < 0.25 ha vs large > 10 ha affects options
Cropping system Rice-rice versus Rice-wheat: Crop effects on subsequent crop (e.g., planting date, soil condition)
Other known problems Problems such as Tungro or rodents may affect only some areas
Access to inputs and markets Inputs not available, or market surplus sold on a depressed market - reducing profit


Maps (see example), reports, and decisions on where selected technologies will be tested (may not be in each domain).
domains testing upscaling
Prepared with input from: MA Bell, JF Rickman, V Balasubramanian, and M Escalada