Cloddy soils cover seeds too much. This causes problems in emergence, and limits water absorption for germination.
Seeds planted on high spots are more prone to weed competition, and can suffer moisture stress.
Low spots in the field have softer soils, causing problems of seed emergence. These spots tend to hold water longer; snails can group together in these spots as the field dries.
Muddy water reduces oxygen supply for the germinating seed, thus leading to low crop establishment.
When soil experience crusting, the germinating seeds are unable to break the crust.
Soils that are too soft have poor crop emergence and poor stand establishment.
IRRI Super Bag
IRRI Rice Quality Assessment Kit
Leaf Color Chart
IRRI Moisture Meter
The Solar Bubble Dryer
See more videos on the IRRI RKB YouTube Channel