Harvesting is the process of collecting the mature rice crop from the field. Paddy harvesting activities include reaping, stacking, handling, threshing, cleaning, and hauling.


The purpose of any grain storage facility is to provide safe storage conditions for the grain in order to prevent grain loss caused by adverse weather, moisture, rodents, birds, insects and micro-organisms like fungi.


The main by-products of rice are rice straw, rice husks or hulls, and rice bran. With proper management, each by-products can be utilized for better purposes such as for energy and non-energy uses (e.g., for agriculture sector and animal fodder production).


Drying is the process that reduces grain moisture content to a safe level for storage. It is the most critical operation after harvesting a rice crop. Delays in drying, incomplete drying, or ineffective drying will reduce grain quality and result in losses.


Milling is a crucial step in post-production of rice. The basic objective of a rice milling system is to remove the husk and the bran layers, and produce an edible, white rice kernel that is sufficiently milled and free of impurities.